Begin Before Birth: Perinatal Mental Health Webinar

I am delighted to be introducing this latest conference which I think will be of huge interest to many new mums, dads and those who care for them. We ask the question “What can happen to any person before birth?” It turns out that what a baby experiences whilst still in the womb can be of great importance to health and wellbeing much later in life. This is also true of a microscopic embryo just three days after conception – while it is still invisible to the naked eye. These influences can affect growth, development and health before the mother can even know she is pregnant. The consequence may have powerful effects on a person’s health years afterwards, much later in adult life.

Our research shows that some quite common medical conditions may only present as a problem for the first time in middle age but have their genesis in the womb. These diseases may result from changes in the unborn baby’s environment. They include heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure and weak bones. It seems almost unbelievable that a tiny person while yet unborn may be so sensitive. It goes further that this. Common conditions like childhood asthma and obesity – and just possibly in some cases, diabetes – may also be more likely with environmental changes. One reason why doctors advise pregnant women not to smoke and also limit the amount of alcohol they drink.

All this is not just true of physical health, but mental well-being also. Mental health problems in pregnancy and after birth affect at least one out of every five women. This last year has been extraordinary and there is no doubt that the pandemic has taken its toll on everybody. But there is no doubt that the apprehension and loneliness caused by the virus has been unprecedented. Moreover the lockdowns have greatly increased the anxiety. This webinar also gives a powerful and optimistic message. The ill effects on later life following changes in the environment in the womb are frequently reversible. But need to understand that environment better, we must recognise what is happening and understand the mechanisms.

This meeting on Zoom seeks to foster friendly, open discussion around the topic. We are fortunate to have gathered a group of world experts for this symposium and there will be plenty of time to put your questions to leading experts in the field. This discussion should be valuable for new and expectant. parents, or those trying to conceive or just thinking about a pregnancy. The webinar is chaired by Professor Vivette Glover at Imperial College London, and is hosted by the charity Genesis Research Trust which supports research into all aspects of women’s health. This meeting echoes the theme of this year’s Infant Mental Health Awareness Week: “Including Infants”.

Everyone is welcome to join us on the afternoon of June 15th. For more information, or to register, please click here.

Professor Robert Winston on Newsnight

We are all very aware of how underfunded the NHS is. Recently, to help reduce costs, the availability of IVF treatment on the NHS has been restricted or halted in 13 areas in England creating something akin to a postcode lottery.

This move has sparked a debate about IVF, associated costs, its necessity and possible long term environmental impact.

One of the voices in this debate belongs to Sirena Bergman who wrote an article for The Independent in which she argued against IVF being offered on the NHS. Last night, she joined Professor Robert Winston and Evan Davies on Newsnight to discuss IVF, the cuts and the surrounding issues.

When Sirena suggested that adoption could potentially be a solution to IVF, to which Professor Winston replied “people who are infertile suffer hugely” and “adoption is not a treatment for fertility” for “infertility is a symptom of a disease and there are at least a hundred causes of infertility”. He also draws her attention to how different NHS Trusts cost the treatment. For some it is as little as £1000, whilst in others the costs reached £6000.

When asked by Davies whether, if he had to cut IVF services, he would cut the age threshold or the number of cycles, he responded: “I would do IVF when it is really needed. At least half of the cycles are unnecessary, that’s one of the issues. Secondly, I want to cost it properly. The work we are doing now, the research we are doing can reduce that cost and I think that’s urgently needed.”

You can still catch the debate on BBC iplayer. The topic starts at 9:00 and the debate at around 13:41 

Why I’m ashamed of the exploitation in the IVF industry – Daily Mail article 4 May 2017

This week I feel ashamed.  This newspaper has published evidence of widespread bad practice in my own speciality of medicine, infertility treatment.

And I feel angry because the Government’s regulatory body, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has been inadequate.

It has not prevented the disgraceful exploitation of patients, mostly women.

I am also depressed because, 27 years ago, we doctors promised Parliament that we would ensure the highest standards where our treatments involved human life and the treatment of embryos.

One of the latest scandals concerns so-called egg sharing.

Egg sharing is offered by some clinics with apparently laudable intentions. The clinics argue it makes treatment available to women unable afford IVF and who are ineligible for NHS treatment. The women agree to have their ovaries stimulated by drugs to produce eggs. Some of these eggs will be fertilised for their own treatment – others will be donated to other patients who cannot produce eggs. These recipients pay for their own treatment and for that of the donor.

It sounds reasonable – but in fact, it is fraught. Firstly, by regulation, the maximum number of embryos a donor can have placed in her womb is one or two. But because drug treatments usually result in the release of at least ten eggs –  and quite frequently many more – there may be many other eggs ‘left over’. This means that from a single donor’s eggs, a clinic will be able to simultaneously supply donor eggs for several patients – all of whom will be paying extra high fees for IVF treatment with egg donation.

The Mail’s investigation suggests that as many as ten recipients could benefit from one donor’s eggs, each being charged the same high fees.

This means that – for the clinics at least – persuading these women to donate their eggs can be extremely lucrative. It also means the that the clinics are incentivised to maximise the chance of getting as many eggs as possible. Therefore, they may be tempted to give the woman donating her eggs more stimulation than is strictly needed – or than is advisable from the point of view of the woman’s health. In addition, though heavier stimulation may increase the number of eggs obtained, it may also result in poorer eggs, with more chromosomal abnormalities an increased risk of miscarriage.

But the problem does not end here. While the donor’s own treatment may be unsuccessful – leaving her childless – it may well produce children for the other woman benefiting from her eggs. And although confidentiality means neither she, the donor, nor the recipient will know any details about the treatment of another patient, including if a pregnancy resulted, any child who is born can, by law, find out who their genetic mother on reaching adulthood.

It is therefore possible that, years later, a childless, grieving woman – whose own treatment has failed – can be traced and visited by a child whom she did not know she had had.

Given all this, it is simply astonishing that – caught by the Daily Mail’s camera – a professional in a clinic suggests that there is nothing for egg donors to worry about. Eggs? “they’re just cells”, she says as she shrugs her shoulders.

Another cause for concern is the increasingly fashionable idea of egg freezing. This is being sold by clinics as a way for career women to effectively put their fertility on hold.

But official figures on success rates from the HFEA are disconcerting. Between 2008 and 2014  – he dates for which full records are currently available – 3489 frozen eggs were thawed in attempts to produce a pregnancy for the patient who stored them. The records are difficult to interpret, but of those, about 77 pregnancies have occurred, with approximately 55 live births resulting from those pregnancies. That means the live birth rate per egg was 1.5%.

Even if you look only at the 589 eggs which were successfully fertilised and transported in to the womb as embryos, those 589 resulted in just  55 live births – a success rate of 9.3%.

So how does this reality compare with what patients are being told? One consultant in the Mail’s investigation is caught on camera asserting that if she freezes her eggs, her chance of pregnancy is 65%. Elsewhere, the website of one London clinic states: ‘Our egg survival rate following vitrification is very high, around 90%, which helps to increase the success of having a baby in the future.’

Most lay people would assume that, if they attend this clinic, they are close to being guaranteed a pregnancy. This seems very misleading, and the HFEA should step in.

But the HFEA does not always give full information about infertility – and there is also a lack of completely reliable information about IVF. This is precisely why we established an entirely charitable website at the Genesis Research Trust to give unbiased information.

For example, I believe that many women are undergoing IVF treatments unnecessarily. This is demonstrated by the fact that so many women get pregnant naturally after IVF has failed.

There are dozens of causes of infertility, each possibly requiring different treatment. Like chest pain, infertility is just symptom. But with chest pain you expect your doctor to do adequate tests to confirm you don’t have lung cancer, heart disease, a broken rib, bronchitis or a viral infection – or perhaps merely indigestion. But complain to your GP about infertility, and there’s every chance you will be simply shunted off to an expensive IVF clinic with little or no investigation by the GP or the clinic.

In 2014, around 45,000 patients were treated with IVF – but significantly, no cause for the infertility was found in over 18,000 of them, the HFEA reports. Some 40% had “unexplained infertility”, or were uncategorised. Clearly, many of these couples did not have had sufficient testing before IVF to ascertain the cause of their infertility. Treatment without making every attempt at a diagnosis first is thoroughly bad medicine. We are all outraged at a surgeon removing breast tissue without making a proper diagnosis, but we ignore what is happening in many infertility clinics.

When I mentioned this in a recent Radio 4 broadcast, I was joined by the fertility expert Adam Balen, who was then Chairman of the British Fertility Society, representing “good” practice across the UK.

I respect Adam who is a good doctor. But I was surprised how he downplayed my concerns. After the broadcast, a well-educated professional woman who had listened in called me.  She had been trying to have a baby for about a year, and had been referred to an IVF clinic with no testing. There, she was scheduled for IVF. She was also told to take Humira, a drug which riskily suppresses the immune system. She was given a private prescription but, worried, did not take it. Fortunately, the woman got pregnant without any further treatment.

To confirm what I had stated on the radio, I emailed Adam Balen twice, explaining how commonly I encountered this kind of malpractice.  Perhaps he did not get my emails as he didn’t respond.

The HFEA must be firmer. There are many good truthful doctors out there doing an ethical job caring properly for their patients. But women seeking fertility treatment are deeply vulnerable.  They are anxious, often depressed, and are in spiritual pain. Some feel that sex has become pointless; they cannot face their partner or friends, feel deeply guilty and will grasp any straw in forlorn hope. They are desperate.

It is our privilege as doctors to treat them properly and with respect. The avarice of just a few in this burgeoning fertility industry in something that all of us should be more ready to condemn.


Woman’s Hour Radio 4

Robert Winston speaks about navigating the world of fertility treatment and his new book.

You can listen to the show here

Infertility – article by Professor Robert Winston published in Daily Mail, 3 September 2015

BABIES are noisy, smelly, highly inconvenient, cause sleeplessness, destroy free time and are extremely expensive. Yet we feel like melting when we see them: their wide, gummy smiles, the adorable way they curl their tiny fingers around your thumb.

This is not rational – it is in our genes. The urge to reproduce is deeply burnt into human consciousness. It is innate, instinctual, essentially programmed through evolution.

But what if you are infertile? For a very large number of infertile people there is real pain. And this pain is as deserving of sensitive treatment as any other medical condition. The loss of self-esteem, a growing and deep anxiety, a corrosive sense of failure, great disruption of sexual relationships, break up of partnerships and frequent depression; these invade every aspect of life. I have spent nearly 40 years talking and listening to people at their most vulnerable: devastated by their lack of offspring, believing they are not ‘proper’ women or not ‘proper’ men.

We have made considerable strides in fertility treatment and that is wonderful. But I am very sad that there is a real need to be very critical of what is also happening. More and more infertile British couples are getting very inadequate treatment or being exploited by an increasingly grasping industry that frequently ignores ethical standards. And neither the government nor its NHS do nearly enough to help.

It is not only some doctors who are responsible for this. Many commercial practices, run by people who are not medically qualified and who have little or no professional training, are offering homespun treatments that simply do not work. They frequently make massive claims that the use of the remedies they peddle will improve IVF success before a woman undergoes that treatment in a private clinic. Their claims are highly dubious and do not stand up to scrutiny.

As a doctor who has been so closely involved with fertility treatment, I feel hugely embarrassed. I deeply regret that IVF has become so commercial; something I never thought would happen. I had thought more doctors and other practitioners would be sensitive enough to realise that they were dealing with people at their most fragile.

Such is my anger that I felt compelled to write a book. It will no doubt be very unpopular with some of my colleagues because it is critical of so much medical practice. My aim is purely to help people to ask their doctors the right questions and, where needed, to understand the treatment they are offered. I want to equip them with simple information so that they can improve their chances of getting the relevant treatments that are most likely to succeed. And, also, when it is unnecessary or hopeless, to avoid treatments like IVF completely.

We are proud that Britain led the way in pioneering in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Some people consider it as one of the ten most important scientific advances of the last 50 years. But now, amid all the inflated publicity in the press and much bluster, IVF has become immensely profitable for some practitioners and the truth about its success rates is frequently hidden.

Each IVF treatment is, on average, only successful in under one third of cases. Of course, it can be repeated at great cost, often with much anxiety. But people are now led to believe that it is almost the only treatment and the most successful. This is utterly wrong. There is excellent evidence that over half of those referred to IVF treatment could be treated as or more successfully by far cheaper alternatives.

If you went to your family doctor complaining of chest pain and you were immediately referred for open-heart surgery without proper investigation you would think, ‘What a dreadful doctor!’ That pain for example might be due to indigestion, chest disease, a sore rib, or a viral infection. But the chances now are that if you complain about the symptom of infertility, you will be referred straight to an IVF clinic – where there may be no proper at attempt at making a diagnosis.

To fail to discover the cause of any symptom is just bad, irresponsible medicine. With infertility, too, it is a major error. Because in most cases specific treatment of the precise cause will lead to much more successful treatment. Each cause of infertility, and there are many, may well need a different course of action. Moreover, IVF most frequently fails when the underlying cause is not first established.

The NHS is much to blame. So often, it does not take the needs of people who are infertile seriously. It fails to investigate its patients adequately and the official guidelines for treatment are laughable. The regulatory bodies responsible like NICE and the HFEA have not done a great job. And, as soon as possible, patients are usually simply shunted into the private sector.

Unquestionably, IVF should not cost nearly as much as what is commonly charged. Even NHS hospitals frequently make a profit that goes to support other services. A fundamental problem is the fact the NHS, too, now operates a market. So NHS centres may not charge what the treatment actually costs to deliver, but rather what it hopes the market will bear.

The NHS is so cash-strapped that any profit is much sought after. As NHS hospitals charge NHS purchasing authorities excessive fees, the number of treatment cycles that the purchasers with a fixed budget can afford is reduced. So many patients are now limited to just one cycle of treatment – their treatment left totally incomplete.

Thereafter patients failing one cycle are forced into the private sector, often into private clinics ironically operated by the same practitioners who treated them initially under the NHS. Here is real potential for a conflict of interests.

But worse is still to come. Private clinics now charge extraordinarily high fees which are making some individuals immensely wealthy. But the combination of the desperation of infertile patients, combined with the seeming avarice of some practitioners is steadily raising market prices.

Of course, there are very scrupulous, honest, kind and ethical doctors in this field operating in excellent clinics. And some do their best to keep prices down and avoid using IVF where they it is unnecessary. But a kind of cartel often exists. Each private clinic can easily assess what another charges and alter its prices. And with so many people who wish to have treatment and so many patients returning after failed cycles, there is little incentive to charge much less.

The consequences are there to see. It is shocking that several private clinics are advertising on the London Underground. This is highly dubious ethically; indeed doctors should know that advertising is totally unacceptable and against the regulations of the General Medical Council. Also we see various private practitioners increasingly making exaggerated claims in the media about procedures they have ‘pioneered’ which ‘offer new hope for childless couples’.   Moreover many patients are paying for treatments that are merely research procedures with unproven value. And many claims are made for various new ‘miraculous’ advances marketed before serious randomised controlled trials have been completed.

Regrettably, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), the regulatory authority set up to protect patients, has been woefully inadequate.

It has done far too little to change what is charged both in the private sector, and also in the NHS. It is ludicrous that an NHS cycle of treatment may cost £1,000 in some parts of the country and exactly the same treatment in others over £5,000. This is evidence that NHS pricing is not based on the real cost of the procedure.

Once in a private clinic, many couples find they pay far more than this by the time a single IVF treatment is concluded. Last week I heard from a woman who had paid over £11,000 by the time she had completed her first IVF cycle. And the costs for other services are eye-watering. A close friend was recently asked for more than £10,000 just for artificial insemination – and this was even without IVF being undertaken. So it is ridiculous, for example, that some clinics may charge £300 or £400 for freezing and storing embryos for one year, when the jug-full of liquid nitrogen in which the embryos are stored costs a few pence and the flasks in which they are kept can be reused again and again. Tiny dormant frozen embryos, invisible to the naked eye, do not occupy hugely expensive space.

The HFEA has repeatedly claimed it has no power to control fees but this is nonsense. It has the remit to ensure ethical treatment and ethical research, and it has the most significant power of all, to remove a clinic’s licence to practise.

I have often complained about these practices in parliament; government ministers show considerable concern but it seems unreasonably difficult to persuade them to take any serious action. The HFEA is a very convenient body behind which any government can hide. The government doesn’t want to interfere; it doesn’t want to be directly involved.

When I was first offered the post of Director of the Fertility Clinic at Hammersmith Hospital in 1980, a very senior consultant said to me: ‘Why would you want to work in the Futility Clinic?’ This attitude was common then; infertility was not seen as a symptom worthy of serious thought, and certainly not an area where there was a need for much better treatments.

But, like other younger doctors, entering this relatively new speciality changed my life and it took me over completely. Many of us found ourselves doing clinics scheduled to finish at 5.30pm but that went on until as late as 10pm because we were so dismayed by the distress we encountered.

In those days there were virtually no private clinics and we were all committed to try to help infertile couples wherever possible under the aegis of the NHS. And as the Health Service had not yet developed its so-called internal market we were nearly always able to a range of free treatments. And if occasionally some patients had to pay for their treatment it would be a realistic, genuine fee. That was how we were all brought up to practise medicine.

But infertility was not seen as that important. Moreover, IVF was still controversial and so the NHS was very reluctant to offer it. As IVF became a bit more successful any widely held ethical attitudes about fees got lost.  By 1986 more private clinics were established and it soon was obvious that as infertility is so common, there would be massive demand. Within a few years a great deal of money was to be made in this area of medicine.

One irony is that as only about one in three women get pregnant with a single IVF treatment this massive income stream is easily supported. Not unreasonably, few people just go through IVF once. Most couple believe that eventually they will get lucky.

It is time we took a much more careful look at how infertility treatments are being offered. For one thing it is clear that there are a vast number of people who get pregnant naturally after IVF has failed. In many of these cases, IVF was not the right treatment in the first place. What is frequently needed is wiser unbiased advice about the best course of action. It may frequently be a far cheaper treatment that works.  And in many cases of so-called unexplained infertily, possible no treatment at all is needed.

A woman recently wrote in desperation, having had three failed IVF attempts. It turned out she was having extremely infrequent periods and was not ovulating. She was also somewhat overweight. She had never been advised by her IVF clinic that her weight could be an important factor. She lost a few kilos and started on Clomid – the fertility drug which stimulates the ovaries costing around £20 per menstrual cycle. She conceived successfully four months after this treatment without any other therapy.

Another 35-year-old patient had had a miscarriage six months after she married. She was referred to a fertility clinic where she was inadequately investigated and had seven treatment cycles. In all, she spent £33,600.  Her cycles produced eggs that fertilised and with each treatment, fresh or frozen embryos were placed in her uterus. Each time she had the increasingly devastating news of a miscarriage or failed pregnancy test.

It was only after her womb was investigated with a simple X-ray costing £300 that adhesions were identified in her uterus. A simple 15 minute operation under anaesthesia allowed their removal and within five months she became pregnant without further treatment. Her first baby, a girl, was followed by two further children each spaced about two years apart.

Unfortunately, womb x-rays which can be highly informative are no longer routinely done. And inspection of the pelvis using a telescope, one of the most important investigations is often avoided. Consequently surgical treatments for infertility perhaps by microsurgery or keyhole surgery are less frequently done under the NHS. This is in spite of the excellent success rates that can be achieved. NICE has recommended, with dubious wisdom, limited indications for using the laparoscope. This ‘cost-saving’ approach actually results in more patients having expensive IVF treatment than necessary.

One of the most serious issues are the number of unproven additional treatments offered to make IVF much more successful. Nearly all of them are expensive and do not bear the test of scientific credibility. Few, if any have undergone serious randomised controlled trials. These include many immune treatments, various drugs like Viagra to help implantation, and embryo biopsy for genetic screening to help choose the ‘best’ embryos.

Meanwhile clinics run by unaccredited individuals may offer herbal treatments, courses of vitamins, aromatherapy, homeopathy, various Chinese remedies and acupuncture. The number of such treatments sold to desperate patients prepared to try anything is scandalous. None are regulated by the HFEA and none are proved to be effective.

Neither has the HFEA apparently been able to do anything to regulate ‘fertility tourism’. Some British clinics have relationships with clinics overseas where they can send their patients to get treatments forbidden in Britain.  After multiple embryo transfer, these women may return to the UK with two or three embryos in their uterus. Thereafter they may have multiple births of premature babies which require expensive intensive care in NHS hospitals

This is a depressing picture but I believe we can turn the tide. There are many bright young doctors and embryologists in training who are equally concerned. With better research we should find many ways of offering cheaper and more effective treatments in future. The best solutions are much better information to patients and proper investment in good academic medicine and training. In time we might look back – perhaps in 30 years – and say ‘My goodness, were they really doing that?’ Hopefully by then exploitation of infertile couples will be past history.

Send me your IVF questions

In 2014 Professor Winston launched the free, confidential Ask Robert Winston service through the Genesis Research Trust. He talks to the Guardian about the reasons for setting up this facility.

Child Against All Odds

Compared to the famously fecund rabbit, for whom a single act of coitus has a 90% chance of creating a litter of up to 12 rabbits, humans are very infertile animals. Here in the UK, the average chance of conception is about 18% per month. And in 98% of cases, successful conception leads only to the birth of a single infant. It is unsurprising then that huge efforts have been made to increase our fertility.

In vitro fertilisation, first attempted one hundred years ago, has now become big business. Market forces, combined with the desperation of many couples to fulfil their biological imperative, have pushed doctors and scientists closer to the boundaries of what is desirable or ethical. And as we are increasingly able to access and control the embryo, the opportunities of altering human genetics to eradicate disease, but also to change human characteristics, becomes a real, and to some, frightening possibility.

A Child Against All Odds is a ground-breaking book for Robert Winston as it falls squarely in his area of expertise. It combines his work at Hammersmith Hospital as one of the country’s leading fertility specialists, with a hard-hitting, sometimes humorous, often controversial look at the scientific, social and ethical background of man’s struggle to discover and control the secrets of reproduction. Drawing on personal and professional experience, it is the definitive account of modern reproductive technology from a practitioner who has spent his professional life at the forefront of this most fascinating and emotive area of science.

Find A Child Against All Odds on

Bantam Publishing (2006)

ISBN 978-0553817447


IVF Revolution

A guide from a leading British expert on the practice and ethics of assisted fertility techniques. Subjects include the latest in vitro fertilisation and gamete intra-fallopian transfer techniques, egg donation and embryo freezing. Winston also looks at the possible causes of infertility and offers advice on the emotional and practical angles.


Find IVF Revolution on


Vermilion Publishing 1999

ISBN 978-0091863395

Making Babies

Accompanying a six-part BBC1 television series, this is an examination of the human, ethical and emotional issues arising from in-vitro fertilization. The book presents the background to the problems faced by women who had IVF treatment during the filming of the series.


Find Making Babies on

BBC Worldwide (1996)

ISBN 9780563387213

Getting Pregnant

Pregnancy is one of the great miracles of everyday life, and infertility, for many couples, is one of the greatest sadnesses. This book examines conception and pregnancy and all the potential surrounding problems. Based on the most up-to-date research, the author gives advice on topics such as how to increase the chances of conception, the causes of male and female infertility, miscarriage, and late motherhood.


Find Getting Pregnant on

Pan Macmillian (1989)

ISBN 978-0330327664